Bruger:Lhademmor/Vegan

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Her er opskrifter på hvordan man laver diverse veganske erstatningsprodukter for ikke-veganske produkter som kød, mælk, smør etc.

Mejeriprodukter[redigér]

Mælk[redigér]

Mælk giver smag, fugt og tykhed til maden. At udskifte mælk med vand resulterer ofte i en forringelse af smagsoplevelsen, og derfor bør man overveje at bruge en plantemælk.

Sojamælk[redigér]

Sojamælk kan generelt fungere som en direkte erstatning for mælk i enhver opskrift, selvom det ikke klumper som komælk når det opvarmes. Der findes et stort udvalg af sojamælk; Naturli' er en af de bedst kendte danske.

Andre erstatningsmælke[redigér]

Blandt andre erstatninger for mælk er havremælk, mandelmælk, kokosmælk og rismælk.

Kokosmælk er en god erstatning for mælk og fløde i mange opskrifter. Den er meget smagfuld, hvilket er godt til vegansk flødesauce og -supper. Den bliver heller ikke "kornet" som sojamælk. Vær dog opmærksom på at det er en af de få planter som indeholder mættede fedtsyrer. Rismælk er relativt vandet og kornet. Havremælk kan være meget tyk og cremet. Mandelmælk er også temmelig vandet, men er meget smagfuld. I modsætning til sojamælk, som sælges i en usødet variant, indeholder disse andre erstatningsmælke relativt meget sukker. Hvis du bruger dem som erstatning for mælk, bør du overveje at skære ned på de andre former for sukker i opskriften.

Kærnemælk[redigér]

Tilsæt en spiseske citronsaft eller eddike til en kop sojamælk eller rismælk. Rør godt, og lad det stå i 10 minutter.

Smør[redigér]

Margarine[redigér]

Plante- eller rapsolie[redigér]

Hvis en opskrift kræver 1/2 kop smør , kan du bruge 1/3 kop olie.

Hørolie[redigér]

Brug det som pynt til kartofler, ris, popcorn, etc.

Bemærk: Du bør ikke bruge dette til tilberedning af mad! Hvis det kombineres med en aubergine eller tempeh kan det give en "fiske-lignende" smag til visse retter.

Nut butter[redigér]

Can be made from almonds, cashews, or other butters. Use the same amount you would for butter.

Applesauce[redigér]

Use for sweet baking only. Use the same amount you would for butter. Especially yummy in brownies! For muffins, etc., replace up to 3/4 of the butter with applesauce, using vegan butter for the rest.

Prune Puree[redigér]

Use in the same way as applesauce: Puree 1/2 cup of pitted prunes with 1/4 cup of water. You will want to reduce the amount used, or the final product may be too moist. If the recipe calls for a half cup use 1/3 cup instead. You may also want to add a little oil, maybe a tablespoon per cup of fat needed, because a little fat goes a long way in taste and texture.

Cheese[redigér]

Most substitute cheese is made of soy, though there are also nut varieties. Beware; some soy cheeses contain casein/caseinate, a milk derivative.

A very tasty vegan cheese which melts well, especially on pizza, is Follow Your Heart's Vegan Gourmet Cheese Alternative. Other brands include Tofutti's Soy Cheese Slices, Cheezly, and VeganRella (VeganRella's sister brands, TofuRella and AlmondRella, contain casein).

The Rella brands are all made on the same machinery, as noted in this mailing list post.

Cashew cheese or nutritional yeast "cheese" sauce are also be appropriate for some dishes.

Replace cottage cheese or ricotta cheese with crumbled tofu in lasagne and other dishes. Adding a little miso can give a "bleu cheese" flavor.

An excellent vegan cream cheese is Tofutti's Better than Cream Cheese, which is available in various flavors and without hydrogenated oils.

Cream[redigér]

Alpro make an excellent cream substitute, which has a very similar texture to real cream and tastes extremely similar.

Yogurt[redigér]

There are a variety of soy yogurts ("cultured soy") available that can be used in place of dairy yogurt including Whole Soy, Stonyfield Farms O'Soy, Silk and Alpro.

Sour Cream[redigér]

A vegan sour cream is Tofutti's Sour Supreme, a non-hydrogenated variety is Tofutti's Better than Sour Cream.

Mayonnaise[redigér]

An excellent vegan mayonnaise is Follow Your Heart's Veganaise, available in canola oil ("original"), expeller-pressed canola oil, grapeseed oil, and organic expeller-pressed soybean varieties. Another vegan mayonnaise is Nayonnaise.

Eggs[redigér]

Eggs have a varied role in cooking; as a wash they provide a glossy texture to breads, when the whites are whipped they provide volume, sometimes (as in pancakes) they are simply traditional and play no structural role, other times they are used to make mixtures stick together.

Vegan egg replacements are generally not good for washes or where they are a major component, as in meringue.

In Baking[redigér]

1/3 cup Applesauce (muffins, brownies, and cake)

1/4 cup Soy Yogurt (Quick breads, muffins, cakes)

1/3 cup Pumpkin Puree (for pies and baking)

1/2 small mashed Banana (for quick breads, muffins, cakes, and pancakes)--helps browning

(Note that the strong flavors of some substitutions such as banana or pumpkin will come through in the finished dish.)

For Binding[redigér]

To bind things like burgers, use mashed potatoes, bread crumbs (blended), cooked rice/oatmeal, or tomato paste.

Other[redigér]

These can be used for a large variety of things:

  • 1/4 cup of Silken Tofu blended (Dense cakes, brownies, use only 1/2 cup to replace 3 eggs for lighter/fluffier baked goods, add a teaspoon of arrowroot or cornstarch for cookies to keep the right texture, bad for pancakes) -- leaves no taste
  • Flax Seed "Gloop": 1 tablespoon flaxseed, finely ground in blender or coffee grinder or 2.5 tablespoons pre-ground flaxseed + 3 tablespoons water (for pancakes, breads, and other baking) -- distinct earthy granola taste great for things like pancakes, and whole grain items, such as bran muffins and corn muffins. It is perfect for oatmeal cookies, and the texture works for cookies in general, although the taste may be too pronounced for some. Chocolate cake-y recipes have mixed results, I would recommend only using one portion flax-egg in those, because the taste can be overpowering.
  • Arrowroot powder
  • Agar powder: Use with recipes that call for egg whites. For each egg white, dissolve 1 tbsp plain agar powder in 1 tbsp water. Whip, chill and whip again.
  • Ener-G Egg Replacer: A versatile, commercially available egg replacer made from potato starch, tapioca flour, and vegan leaveners. You can find it at natural/health food stores. One whole egg = 1 tsp Ener-G® powder + 2 tbsp water. Tastes chalky.
    To make something similar to Ener-g:
    • Mix together 1 tsp Baking Powder, 1/2 tsp Baking Soda, 2 Tbsp Flour, 3 Tbsp Water.
    • A heaping tablespoon of soy flour or bean flour mixed with a tablespoon of water.
    • 2 tablespoons of cornstarch beaten with 2 tablespoons of water.
  • Lecithin: Can give an "eggy" flavor to bland-flavored items, such as tofu or soymilk-based sauces.

Some others:

1 tsp baking powder, 1 Tbsp water, 1 Tbsp vinegar

1 tsp yeast dissolved in 1/4 cup warm water

1 Tbsp apricot puree

1 1/2 Tbsp water, 1 1/2 Tbsp oil, 1 tsp baking powder

Honey[redigér]

While some vegans eat honey, others would like to avoid it. Agave nectar is a general-purpose liquid sweetener derived from the agave plant that serves well as a honey substitute. It is produced by Sweet Cactus Farms and Madhava, among others. Golden syrup is also a good substitute.

Meat[redigér]

Meat can be replaced with varying degrees of success by tofu, tempeh, seitan, textured vegetable protein, vegetable or nut mixtures, or a commercially available meat substitute such as tofurkey, soyrizo, or soy taco.

Many Asian foods stores have false meat available. False squid is especially realistic, but there is also false chicken, pork, duck, and fish. These are usually made from gluten, but often also have soy ingredients.

Miscellaneous[redigér]

Fish Sauce[redigér]

Fish sauce is made of fish. This cookbook has a recipe for vegan fish sauce.

Worcestershire Sauce[redigér]

Worcestershire sauce is traditionally made with anchovies. There are many vegan Worcestershire sauces including varieties by Edward & Sons Trading Company and Annie's Naturals. Some grocery store brands of Worcestershire sauce are also vegan.

Broth & Bouillon[redigér]

Chicken or beef broth can be replaced by a vegetable broth or by vegetable bouillon cubes such as Organic Country Bouillon Cubes.

See Also[redigér]

Vegan Alternatives to Typically Non-Vegan Products

Post Punk Kitchen: Vegan Baking (includes reviews of various methods of substitutions)